Develop Needle-Free Delivery Systems
In 2017, coverage with most recommended vaccines among children aged 19–35 months remained stable and high but was lower in more rural areas and among uninsured or Medicaid-insured children. A small but increasing proportion of children received no vaccines by age 24 months. Globally millions of children go without vaccines, ore receive vaccines administered in unsafe conditions. Multiple advances in formulation and drug delivery and new ideas for activating immune cells in skin and in various mucosal surfaces create the possibility of effective immunization routes that may optimize the development of protective immunity and avoid the multiple risks and drawbacks of the use of needles in vaccination. If we can develop effective needle-free delivery systems for vaccine administration via mucosal (oral, nasal, aerosol), transcutaneous and other approaches, more children can be saved.